New evidence from neutrinos suggests one of several theories about why the universe is formed from matter and not from antimatter
Initially, there was matter and antimatter, and then, there was only matter. What is the reason? This question is one of the pivotal puzzles in physics. For decades, theorists have come up with possible solutions, most of which involve the presence of additional particles beyond the known species in the universe. Last week, scientists announced exciting results indicating a possible solution, but the data fell short of the crucial discovery. Regardless of what the final answer is, solving the question may enable us to know what is more than just discovering the reason why we live in a universe formed of matter; It would reveal secrets from the early epochs of the universe, or even connect us with the hidden dark matter that baffles scientists.
Most theories dealing with how the substance has dominated antimatter are divided into two broad categories. The first class of these theories is known as the formation of baryons with weak electrical interaction, and it assumes additional copies of the Higgs boson particle, the particle responsible for acquiring everything else for its mass. And if the relatives of a particle Higgs had a presence, they might have helped initiate a sudden transition, such as the transformation of water from a liquid into a gas, early in the universe, and this may have resulted in the availability of matter slightly more than the antimatter in the universe. And when a connection occurs between matter and antimatter, each of them completely destroys the other, so it is possible that most things in the small universe were destroyed, leaving behind a slight surplus of matter to form the galaxies, stars and planets around our planet.
Another groundbreaking theory called lepto formation is based on neutrinos, which are very much lighter particles than quarks, passing ethereally, and rarely cease to interact with anything at all. According to this scenario, in addition to the normal neutrinos with which we are aware, there are very heavy neutrinos so large that they may have formed only from the enormous energies and temperatures that existed immediately after the Big Bang, when the universe was extremely hot and dense. And when these particles dissolved into smaller, more stable types, according to the authors of this theory, it may have produced by-products of matter slightly more than the by-products of the antimatter, which led to the pattern we see today.
TWO PUZZLES AT THE PRICE OF ONE PUZZLE
The recent statement made by Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) scientists in Japan offers promising evidence for the concept of Lepto composition. The experiment observes neutrinos that traverse 300 kilometers underground and change between three types or flavors. This is a strange ability that distinguishes neutrinos and is called oscillation. Researchers of the Tokai to Kamioka experiment discovered that there are more fluctuations in neutrinos than in neutrinos, which suggests that the two do not only act as both mirror images of the other, but they also act differently in reality. This difference between a particle and its antimatter counterpart is known as a “breach of symmetry of the normal charge”, and it is powerful evidence that can be useful in seeking to understand how antimatter preceded the object after the creation of the universe. “The Tokai to Kameoka experiment team,” says Chang Ki-young from Stony Brook University and a member of the “Tokai to Kamioka” experiment team.We are not counting that as a discovery yet. “The experiment currently excluded the possibility of a neutrino breach that does not correspond to the normal charge, with a confidence level of 95%, and shows evidence that the particles may show the maximum possible permissible permissibility of normal charge symmetry. However, More data and likely future experiments will be required to accurately measure the extent to which neutrinos and anti-neutrinos differ.
Even if physicists make a decisive discovery of the violation of the symmetry of the normal charge of neutrinos, they will not have thus radically solved the cosmic question of antimatter. Seda Ibec, a theoretical physicist at the University of California, Irvine, says such a discovery would be “necessary, but not sufficient” to prove Liptu formation. The second requirement of the theory is that it turns out that the neutrinos and the counter neutrinos are the same thing. How is this apparent contradiction possible? The substance and antimatter are believed to be identical except that they each carry an opposite charge to the other. Can Niotrinwat that without shipments to be the two at the same time. If this possibility is the case, it may also explain why the Alniotrinwat very light, perhaps less than one of the six million electron mass.And if neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are the same thing, they may gain mass not by interacting with the Higgs field (associated with the Higgs boson particle), which is what most particles do, but through another process called the swing mechanism. Their tiny masses may be inversely proportional to the heavy neutrinos that appeared at the beginning of the universe. “When one is high, the other is low, like the swing,” says IBC.
“Forming a Lepto is a very ingenious way of clarifying things,” says Jessica Turner, a theoretical physicist at the National Fermi Expedition (Fermilab) Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. these small blocks. ” Evidence that neutrinos are their counterparts from the antimatter can be sourced from experiments looking for a hypothetical reaction called the multiplication of the non-neutrino beta decay, which can only occur if the neutrinos are able to destroy themselves as the substance and antimatter do when they communicate. But even this discovery will not provide a definite proof of the occurrence of Liptu formation. Turner says that “if we can see the maximum violation of symmetry normal shipment is measured, and noted that Alniotranont itself was anti-particles, we can say that this is circumstantial evidence, not direct evidence.”
LINK TO THE DARK SECTOR
Physicists point out that another theoretical option put forward, namely baryons with weak electrical interaction, may be easier to research. Says Marcela Kareena, head of the Department of Physics theory in the accelerator laboratory Fermi National: that while the formation of heavy Alniotrinwat participation in leptogenesis, will exceed the likely capabilities of particle accelerators, the Higgs boson additional predicted by this theory may appear only in the great Collider hadrons. Even if the machine does not directly manufacture it, these Higgs relatives can secretly interact with the traditional Higgs bosons that it produces, but this can still be discovered.
Baryons with electromagnetic interaction also require a violation of the symmetry of the normal charge in the universe, but not specifically in neutrinos. Indeed, a violation of the symmetry of the normal charge was actually detected in quarks, although it was in very small quantities that made it difficult to explain the imbalance between matter and antimatter. One of the places where a normal charge symmetry violation can be hidden is the dark sector, which is the range of dark, invisible matter that is believed to constitute the bulk of the material in space. The behavior of dark matter may differ from the behavior of dark matter, and this difference can explain the universe as we know it. “My field of work is trying to relate the imbalance of matter-antimatter in the universe to the idea that we recognize our need for something that we haven’t seen yet to interpret dark matter,” Karina says.
Evidence of baryons by electromagnetic interaction can be evaluated not only by the discovery of additional Higgs particles, but also by numerous experiments looking for dark matter and the dark strip. Moreover, if a cosmic phase shift occurred shortly after the Big Bang, as theory suggests, it may have produced gravitational waves that could be detected by future experiments, such as the LISA antenna, a space detector of gravitational waves , To be launched in the 1930s.
Meanwhile, a critical measurement of the normal charge symmetry violation will be available in the neutrinos, at least, in the near future. There are upcoming projects such as “Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment” (DUNE) and the “Hyper-Kameocandy” experiment that succeeds the “Tokai to Kameioka” experiment, and these projects must have the necessary sensitivity to perform calculations. Accurate. “The data from the Tokai to Kamioka experiment seems to be very interesting, and it makes me feel very excited that something interesting is being studied in the next generation of experiments,” said Ed Blascher, a spokesman for the “deep underground neutrino experiment” from the University of Chicago. future. “