The transfer of genetic genes usually occurs vertically between generations from parents to children, but there is a feature in bacteria that allows them to transfer their genetic genes between each other (from the same generation).
Horizontal gene transfer is a characteristic of bacteria that transfer some of their DNA horizontally to the rest of the bacteria in their surroundings.
This process occurs through 3 means, either through a sexual tube between the two cells (bacteria), or through the bacteria secreting some of its DNA to be captured by other cells, or through a type of virus (phages) that invade the bacteria and transfer part of the DNA between them .
Horizontal transmission is very important to us because when we use antibiotics to fight bacterial diseases, we kill a lot of bacteria, but some of these bacteria survive because of genetic mutations here and there. If these bacteria can spread their mutations horizontally to their sisters, we will have a resistant generation of bacteria that is not affected by the antibiotics we use. For this reason, antibiotics should be used only when needed, and the dose should also be completed to eliminate the largest possible number of bacteria before they spread their genes horizontally… It is also recommended not to use antibacterial soaps and detergents.
This story is also a good example of the theory of evolution as it exemplifies how physicians who do not understand the theory of evolution can harm their patients by prescribing antibiotics that are ineffective against disease but harmful in terms of activating the development of bacteria in reverse to antibiotics.
Over time, bacteria will evolve and all our antibiotics will become ineffective against them…